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Central Banks get smart on climate threats with AI

Central Banks get smart on climate threats with AI

In a move that merges finance and technology, multiple European central banks announced a new artificial intelligence (AI) tool, Gaia.

The tool, designed to improve the evaluation of climate-related financial risks, was unveiled on March 19.

The European Central Bank, the Bank for International Settlements, the Bank of Spain, and the Bundesbank of Germany collaborated on the experimental Project Gaia. This project analyzed data on corporate carbon emissions, green bond issuance, and voluntary net-zero pledges.

Central banks grapple with messy climate data

Regulators overseeing banks, insurers, and asset managers face a data dilemma. Assessing the financial risks posed by climate change requires high-quality information, but current reporting standards are a mess. 

Public information on corporate sustainability efforts is scattered across text, tables, and footnotes in annual reports, with inconsistencies and varying definitions across jurisdictions. This makes it difficult to analyze the impact of climate change on financial institutions.

The vision of Project Gaia is to create an open web-based tool that helps analysts and supervisors search corporate climate-related disclosures and extract data. This could potentially reduce the manual workload associated with climate risk assessments. The tool functions by extracting structured data from unstructured PDF documents, consolidating various information elements like text, tables, and figures. 

AI-driven solutions for climate risk analysis

Gaia leverages advanced AI technologies, specifically large language models (LLMs), to identify relevant information and present it in a user-friendly format.

More than two-dozen researchers, including the European Central Bank, Bank of Spain, used Gaia to analyze data coming in over the past five years from 187 financial institutions. The tool revealed a trend towards increased net-zero commitments and green bond issuance, highlighting its potential for uncovering valuable insights.

Finally, central banks are considering releasing Gaia as a public online tool. This move could broaden participation in climate risk research and analysis. Increased participation has the potential to enhance understanding and mitigation strategies for climate-related financial risks.

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