Investing is all about buying into things like bonds, cryptocurrencies, funds, and stocks and shares – anything where the expectations are that over time, those investments will earn profits, thereby increasing in value.
Some costs of investing, such as trading and management fees, are unavoidable, although by working with the right personal wealth specialist advisors, you can minimise those costs to acceptable levels. Tax, on the other hand, is a different kettle of fish. Having to pay tax, can significantly reduce the value of your investments, however the cost can be minimised and even avoided altogether by choosing the most tax-efficient saving vehicles – vehicles like ISAs here in the UK and their equivalent in the USA – Roth IRAs.
Understanding Individual Savings Accounts (ISAs)
Renowned investment platforms like Moneyfarm offer a range of ISA options, enabling investors to choose the best suits according to their financial goals and risk tolerance.
ISAs were launched in 1999 by then Chancellor of the Exchequer, Gordon Brown. Initially, there were only two types of ISA – Cash ISAs and Stocks and Shares ISAs. Over time, other variants were introduced, and today there are five types:
- The Cash ISA
- The Stocks and Shares ISA (also known as investments ISAs)
- The Innovative Finance ISA
- The Junior ISA
- The Lifetime ISA
ISA Qualification Criteria
To be able to open an ISA, you must either be resident in the UK, or you must be a “Crown Servant” (such as working in the diplomatic or overseas civil service) or be a spouse or civil partner if you are not resident in the UK.
You have to be a minimum of 16 years of age to open a Cash ISA, or 18 years of age to open any other type of ISA. In terms of the Lifetime ISA, there is also a maximum age, which is 40.
You cannot open or hold most ISAs with or on behalf of anybody else, but you can create and contribute to a Junior ISA for your children, provided they are under the age of 18.
ISAs are supremely tax efficient. Whereas some savings vehicles, like pensions, for example, allow you to avoid paying Capital Gains Tax, ISAs not only offer that saving but also allow you to avoid income tax when making withdrawals.
The amount of money you can invest in an ISA, tax-free, is governed by the ISA allowance. When first introduced, the annual ISA allowance was £7,000, but it has grown over the years, and for the current tax year (2023-24), it is set at £20,000.
The US ISA Equivalent – the Roth IRA
The initials “IRA” stand for Individual Retirement Account. It is an account that residents of the United States can use to save for their retirements.
Roth IRAs bear similarities to traditional IRAs, but the biggest difference between the two types of accounts is how they are taxed. The Roth IRA variant is funded with what are referred to as “after-tax dollars.” It means contributions aren’t tax-deductible, but when you begin to withdraw your funds, you can do so tax-free after the age of 59 years and 6 months, providing the account was opened a minimum of 5 years before.
As far as the annual contribution allowance is concerned, in 2023, the majority of people can contribute up to a total of $6,500 into a Roth IRA, an increase of $500 from 2022. If you are aged 50 or more, the 2023 annual allowance is $7,500.
Comparison Between Stocks and Shares ISAs and Roth IRAs
For most people in the UK, the Stocks and Shares ISA is the favoured investment vehicle. Innovative Finance ISAs are considered by many to be too risky, while Lifetime ISAs have restrictions as they are primarily geared towards buying a first property. The interest rate on funds saved in Cash ISA is low – no more than the top savings accounts, while Junior ISAs are investments on behalf of your children.
If you are considering investing and have been doing some research, you will almost certainly have come across ISAs, and the chances are that you will also have encountered Roth IRAs, and if so, you could be wondering which is best.
- Flexibility – One of the important differences between ISAs and Roth IRAs is that the IRA is primarily a retirement savings vehicle. Investment ISAs are more flexible.
- Early withdrawal penalties – With a Roth IRA, if you withdraw funds before you are 59 years, 6 months old, or the account has not been opened for a minimum 5 years, you will have to pay a 10% penalty. With a Stocks and Shares ISA, you can withdraw funds at any age without penalty.
- Contribution allowances – You can only contribute up to $6,500 per annum to a Roth IRA, whereas with a Stocks and Shares ISA, you can contribute up to £20,000 per annum.
- Asset choice – You get far more freedom of choice with which assets you can buy with a Stocks and Share ISA than you do with a Roth IRA.
- Income level discrimination – You cannot contribute to a Roth IRA if, as a single earner, you receive an income of more than $129,000 per annum or $204,000 per annum as a couple. There is no income bar with Stocks and Shares ISAs.
The Importance of Choosing the Right Platform
It is not possible for UK citizens to open a Roth IRA; not unless you are resident in the USA and work for a US-based company.
As a UK resident, you can, however, open a Stocks and Shares ISA. There are a number of ISA investment platforms here in the UK, but they all charge different fees, so you need to do your research well and choose accordingly.